Lost Creek Flux Tower

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10 m Tower
Instrument shelter and solar panels
Sonic anemometer and radiation sensors

Alder thicket viewed from tower base
Mixed wetland vegetation viewed from Hwy 47

Click here to see additional photos!

Location:   46° 4.9' N, 89° 58.7' W (click here for aerial photographs)
Elevation:  approx. 480 m above sea level (click here for topo map)
Annual Average Precipitation/Snowfall (Park Falls, 1961-1990):  81.8 / 126.2 cm
Annual Average Temperature (Park Falls, 1961-1990):  4.8°C
Stand age:  unknown
Species Composition:  Alder-Willow (click here for compartment maps)
Canopy height:  approx. 1-2 m
Leaf Area Index (LAI):   to be determined
Average Stem Diameter at Breast Height (dbh):   to be determined
Soils:  Lupton, Cathro, and Tawas mucks, 0-1% slope;  these poorly drained soils formed on outwash sands,
    and are composed primarily of sapric material about 0.75 m thick near the tower.
Established:  4 September 2000


    Glen Martin fold over tower (30 ft)
    CSI CR23X datalogger, 4 Mb extended memory
    CSI CR10X datalogger, 1 Mb extended memory
    CSI AM416 multiplexer
    LI-COR 6262 (CO2/H 2O fluxes) and 6251 (CO 2 profile)
    GAST 0532 rotary vane pump (for 6262) and Brailsford TD4x2NA double acting diaphram pumps (for 6251)
    ¼" (od) PFA or Dekabon 1300 tubing, and Gelman Acro 50 teflon inlet filters
    High precision CO 2 profiler (see Peter Bakwin et al., 1998, Tellus 47B:535-549)
    CSI CSAT Sonic anemometer
    CSI CS500 Temperature/Relative humidity sensor
    LI-COR LI-200X Silicon pyranometer
    Kipp & Zonan NR-Lite net radiometer
    Kipp & Zonan PAR-Lite Quantum sensor
    CSI model 237 leaf wetness sensor
    Type T thermocouples (soil/tree temperatures; air temperatures from 1.2 to 3.0 m)
    CSI 10TCRXTCR Thermocouple reference thermistor
    REBS HFT-3 soil heat flux plate
    Water depth pressure transducer (Omega PX242-005G)
    Texas Electronics 6" tipping bucket rain gauge with CSI CS705 snowfall adapter and Onset Hobo Event Logger
    RAD Short-haul modems and CSI SC32A optically isolated interface
    Systemax portable computer and Iomega 1 Gb Jaz drive
    Astropower 120W solar panels
    Trace C40 battery chargers and 24VDC/4400 AHr battery bank (Trojan T150s)

Sampling Frequencies:
    0.1 second - eddy covariance measurements (wind speed/direction, CO2 , H2O)
    1 second - radiation, air temperature, H2 O mixing ratio
    1 minute - leaf wetness
    10 minutes - air/soil/tree temperatures, water table depth, soil heat flux
    15 minutes - interval between profile CO2 measurments for any level

Standards and Calibration:
    CO 2standards - 340, 440, 550 ppm CO 2 in air (calibrated using NOAA primary standards).
    CO 2 mixing ratio - LI-6251 zeroed every 45 minutes, calibrated with 3 standards every 4 hours.
    CO 2 and H2 O flux - LI-6262 continuously calibrated with LI-6251 and humidity measurements.

VIEW PLOTS (You will need Adobe Acrobat and/or Ghost View to view these plots)


Page by Bruce Cook. Please send comments or questions to Kelly Cherrey